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Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights

PREAMBLE to the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights

PART I General Provisions and Basic Principles

Article 1: Nature and Scope of Obligations

Article 2: Intellectual Property Conventions

Article 3: National Treatment

Article 4: Most-Favoured-Nation Treatment

Article 5: Multilateral Agreements on Acquisition or Maintenance of Protection

Article 6: Exhaustion

Article 7: Objectives

Article 8: Principles

PART II Standards Concerning the Availability, Scope and Use of Intellectual Property Rights

Section 1 – Copyright and Related Rights

Article 9: Relation to the Berne Convention

Article 10: Computer Programs and Compilations of Data

Article 11: Rental Rights

Article 12: Term of Protection

Article 13: Limitations and Exceptions

Article 14: Protection of Performers, Producers of Phonograms (Sound Recordings)

Section 2 Trademarks

Article 15: Protectable Subject Matter

Article 16: Rights Conferred

Article 17: Exceptions

Article 18: Term of Protection

Article 19: Requirement of Use

Article 20: Other Requirements

Article 21: Licensing and Assignment

Section 3 –  Geographical Indications

Article 22: Protection of Geographical Indications

Article 23: Additional Protection for Geographical Indications for Wines and Spirits

Article 24: International Negotiations; Exceptions

Section 4 – Industrial Designs

Article 25: Requirements for Protection

Article 26: Protection

Section 5 – Patents

Article 27: Patentable Subject Matter

Article 28: Rights Conferred

Article 29: Conditions on Patent Applicants

Article 30: Exceptions to Rights Conferred

Article 31: Other Use Without Authorization of the Right Holder

Article 32: Revocation/Forfeiture

Article 33: Term of Protection

Article 34: Process Patents: Burden of Proof

Section 6 – Layout-Designs (Topographies) of Integrated Circuits

Article 35: Relation to the IPIC Treaty

Article 36: Scope of the Protection

Article 37: Acts Not Requiring the Authorization of the Right Holder

Article 38: Term of Protection

Section 7 – Protection of Undisclosed Information

Article 39

Section 8 – Control of Anti-Competitive Practices in Contractual Licences

Article 40

PART III Enforcement of Intellectual Property Rights

Section 1 – General Obligations

Article 41

Section 2 – Civil and Administrative Procedures and Remedies

Article 42: Fair and Equitable Procedures

Article 43: Evidence

Article 44: Injunctions

Article 45: Damages

Article 46: Other Remedies

Article 47: Right of Information

Article 48: Indemnification of the Defendant

Article 49: Administrative Procedures

Section 3 – Provisional Measures

Article 50

Section 4 – Special Requirements Related to Border Measures

Article 51: Suspension of Release by Customs Authorities

Article 52: Application

Article 53: Security or Equivalent Assurance

Article 54: Notice of Suspension

Article 55: Duration of Suspension

Article 56: Indemnification of the Importer and of the Owner of the Goods

Article 57: Right of Inspection and Information

Article 58: Ex Officio Action

Article 59: Remedies

Article 60: De Minimis Imports

Section 5 – Criminal Procedures

Article 61

PART IV Acquisition and Maintenance of Intellectual Property Rights and Related Inter-Partes Procedures

Article 62

PART V Dispute Prevention and Settlement

Article 63: Transparency

Article 64: Dispute Settlement

PART VI Transitional Arrangements

Article 65: Transitional Arrangements

Article 66: Least-Developed Country Members

Article 67: Technical Cooperation

PART VII Institutional Arrangements; Final Provisions

Article 68: Council for Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights

Article 69: International Cooperation

Article 70: Protection of Existing Subject Matter

Article 71: Review and Amendment

Article 72: Reservations

Article 73: Security Exceptions

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